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邏輯學 第三篇 概念論(238-241)

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§ 238



The several steps or stages of the Speculative Method are, first of all, (a) the Beginning, which is Being or Immediacy: self subsistent, for the simple reason that it is the beginning. But looked at from the speculative idea, Being is its self specialising act, which as the absolute negativity or movement of the notion makes a judgement and puts itself as its own negative. Being, which to the beginning as beginning seems mere abstract affirmation, is thus rather negation, dependency, derivation, and presupposition. But it is the notion of which Being is the negation: and the notion is completely self identical in its otherness, and is the certainty of itself. Being therefore is the notion implicit, before it has been explicitly put as a notion. This Being therefore, as the still unspecified notion a notion that is only implicitly or 'immediately' specified is equally describable as the Universal.



When it means immediate being, the beginning is taken from sensation and perception the initial stage in the analytical method of finite cognition. When it means universality, it is the beginning of the systematic method. But since the Logical Idea is as much a universal as it is in being since it is presupposed by the notion as much as it itself immediately is, its beginning is a synthetic as well as an analytical beginning.



Philosophical method is analytical as well as synthetic, not indeed in the sense of a bare juxtaposition or mere alternating employment of these two methods of finite cognition, but rather in such a way that it holds them merged in itself. In every one of its movements therefore it displays an attitude at once analytical and synthetic. Philosophical thought proceeds analytically, in so far as it only accepts its object, the Idea, and while allowing it its own way, is only, as it were, an onlooker at its movement and development. To this extent philosophising is wholly passive. Philosophic thought however is equally synthetic, and evinces itself to be the action of the notion itself. To that end, however, there is required an effort to keep back the incessant impertinence of our own fancies and private opinions.





§238



思辯方法的各環節為:(α)開始。這就是存在或直接性;



它是自為的,簡單的理由,因為它只是開始。但從思辯理念的觀點看來,它是理念的自我規定。這種自我規定,作為概念的絕對的否定性或運動,進行判斷,并設定對它自己本身的否定。那作為開始的存在,最初似乎是抽象的肯定,其實乃是否定,是間接性,是設定起來的,是有前提的。但是存在作為概念的否定(概念能在它的對方得到自身的同一性和自身的確定性),便是尚沒有設定為概念的概念,亦即自在的概念。因此這種存在便是尚沒有經過規定的概念,亦即只是自在的直接的特定概念,也同樣可以說是普遍的東西。



〔說明〕如果方法意味著從直接的存在開始,就是從直觀和知覺開始,——這就是有限認識的分析方法的出發點。



如果方法是從普遍性開始,這是有限認識的綜合方法的出發點。但邏輯的理念既是普遍的,又是存在著的,既是以概念為前提,又直接地是概念本身,所以它的開始既是綜合的開始,又是分析的開始。



附釋:哲學的方法既是分析的又是綜合的,這倒并不是說對這兩個有限認識方法的僅僅平列并用,或單純交換使用,而是說哲學方法揚棄了并包含了這兩個方法。因此在哲學方法的每一運動里所采取的態度,同時既是分析的又是綜合的。



哲學思維,就其僅僅接受它的對象、理念,聽其自然,似乎只是靜觀對象或理念自身的運動和發展來說,可以說是采取的分析方法。這種方式下的哲學思考完全是被動的。但是哲學思維同時也是綜合的,它表示出它自己即是概念本身的活動。不過哲學思維為了要達到這一目的,卻需要一種認真的努力去掃除自己那些不斷冒出來的偶然的幻想和特殊的意見。





§ 239



(b) The Advance renders explicit the judgement implicit in the Idea. The immediate universal, as the notion implicit, is the dialectical force which on its own part deposes its immediacy and universality to the level of a mere stage or 'moment'. Thus is put the negative of the beginning, its specific character: it supposes a correlative, a relation of different terms the stage of Reflection.



Seeing that the immanent dialectic only states explicitly what was involved in the immediate notion, this advance is Analytical; but seeing that in this notion this distinction was not yet stated, it is equally Synthetic.



In the advance of the idea, the beginning exhibits itself as what it is implicitly. It is seen to be mediated and derivative, and neither to have proper being nor proper immediacy. It is only for the consciousness which is itself immediate, that Nature forms the commencement or immediacy and that Spirit appears as what is mediated by Nature. The truth, indeed, is that Nature is posited by Spirit, and Spirit itself in turn, uses Nature as its presupposition.





§239



(β)進展。進展就是將理念的內容發揮成判斷。直接的普遍性,作為自在的概念就是辯證法,由于辯證法的這種作用,概念自己本身就把它的直接性和普遍性降低為一個環節。因此它就成為對"開始"的否定,或者對那最初者予以規定。這樣,它便有了相關者,對相異的方面有了聯系,因而進入反思的階段。



〔說明〕這種進展也同樣既是分析的,由于通過它的內在的辯證法只是發揮出那已包含在直接的概念內的東西;又是綜合的,因為在這一概念里,這些差別尚未明白發揮出來。



附釋:在理念的進展里,"開始"表明其自身還是自在的東西,換言之,它是被設定的,中介性的,既不是存在著的,也不是直接性的。只有對那本身直接意識說來,自然才是開始的、直接性的東西,而精神是以自然為中介的東西。但事實上自然是由精神設定起來的,而精神自身又以自然為它的前提。





§ 240



The abstract form of the advance is, in Being, an other and transition into an other; in Essence showing or reflection in the opposite; in Notion, the distinction of individual from universality, which continues itself as such into, and is as an identity with, what is distinguished from it.





§240



進展的抽象形式在"存在"的范圍內,是一個對方并過渡到一個對方;在"本質"范圍內,它是映現在對立面內,在"概念"范圍內,它是與個體性相區別的普遍性,繼續保持其普遍性于與它相區別的個體事物之中,并達到與個體事物的同一性。





§241



In the second sphere the primarily implicit notion has come as far as shining, and thus is already the idea in germ. The development of this sphere becomes a regress into the first, just as the development of the first is a transition into the second. It is only by means of this double movement, that the difference first gets its due, when each of the two members distinguished, observed on its own part, completes itself to the totality, and in this way works out its unity with the other. It is only by both merging their one sidedness on their own part, that their unity is kept from becoming one sided.





§241



在第二范圍里,那最初自在存在著的概念,達到了映現;



所以它已經是潛在的理念了。這一范圍的發展成為到第一范圍的回歸,正如第一范圍的發展成為到第二范圍的過渡一樣。



唯有通過這種雙重的運動,區別才取得它應有的地位,即被區別開的雙方的每一方就它自己本身來看,都完成它自己到達了全體,并且在全體中實現其自身與對方的統一。唯有雙方各自揚棄其片面性,它們的統一才不致偏于一面。
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